With 28 species (including seven that are endemic, or found nowhere else on Earth) Myanmar is a turtle diversity hotspot and is currently considered “ground zero” for the Asian turtle crisis. Working in conjunction with the Wildlife Conservation Society, the TSA works to implement recovery programs for some highly endangered endemic species – the Burmese roof turtle, Burmese star tortoise and Arakan forest turtle. The TSA is also coordinating a comprehensive and humane response to the thousands of smuggled turtles that are confiscated each year on their way to China. Multiple captive breeding and rescue centers are currently being built or planned that will secure the future for turtles saved from the illegal trade.

TSA President Visits Project Sites in Myanmar

TSA President Rick Hudson recently visited Myanmar to evaluate the TSA's conservation programs there. This is his trip report - enjoy!

I arrived in Bangkok on 24 September, overnighted, and flew into Mandalay the next day. I was met by Dr. Kalyar Platt, Director of TSA's Turtle Conservation Program, and her colleagues Me Me So and Myo Myo, with our partner organization, the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). We left the hot dry plains surrounding Mandalay, and drove up into the mountains of the Shan Plateau, to the town of May Myo (or Pyin Oo Lwin), 4,000 ft above Mandalay and a former cool-climate retreat for British officers during colonial times. This was my first trip back since we opened the Turtle Rescue Center (TRC) in December 2012, and the most obvious change I noted in my nearly two year absence was the number of people were carrying smart phones. There was better-than-expected cellular coverage in the cities, and wireless internet access was available in most hotels.

September 26: We drove to the TRC, about 17 miles outside May Myo, with plans to meet our architect to design a series of ponds to accommodate the growing number of softshell turtles that we continue to see in confiscations heading for China. We were unable to include facilities for aquatic turtles in the Phase I of the TRC due to lack of funds; with new potential funding on the horizon, we needed to get plans and a budget prepared. Upon arrival, as irony would have it, we were notified that there had been a softshell turtle confiscation that morning and that they were on the way! We worked with the architect on the available land for building, and plans quickly came together. We inspected our breeding facilities for the 30 adult Burmese mountain tortoises (Manouria emys) at the facility, all of which were received from a confiscation back in 2007. It's the rainy season so the enclosures are muddy and we discussed ways to improve drainage in this area.

Then the confiscated turtles arrived. The baskets and bags into which they were crammed reeked with the smell of death, and we prepared ourselves for the worse.

We unpacked 69 turtles including 60 Lissemys scutata, one Nilssonia formosa, one Amyda ornata, four Cyclemys and three Indotestudo elongata. Fortunately there was only one dead specimen that accounted for the smell, and all the others appeared to be in fairly robust condition. Kalyar's team went to work quickly and within 15 minutes had the whole lot sorted out and placed in temporary holding containers with water for rehydration. The turtles had been seized by a mobile crime unit – composed of Police, Customs and Ministry of Commerce – during a routine inspection of a bus load of passengers heading for China.

After instructions were given to staff on caring for the turtles, we prepared to leave. WCS veterinarian Dr. Tint Lwin will visit soon to evaluate the group, and most will eventually be released once appropriate sites can be identified and their health confirmed. The N. formosa, or Burmese Peacock Softshell – so named for the prominent ocelli on the carapace - is an Endangered endemic species and will likely be retained for the development of an assurance colony. We already have other N. formosa housed with Batagur elsewhere, and will acquire more soon when a temple pond is drained in Yangon.

At 1:00 PM, we began the five hour drive to Bagan to rendezvous with the WCS medical team who was there conducting pre-release health exams on 300 Burmese star tortoises (Geochelone platynota) destined for reintroduction. About an hour outside of Mandalay we stopped  at the Minsontaung Wildlife Sanctuary, home of one of three breeding facilities managed by the Forest Department for star tortoises. This is the first of three facilities for G. platynota that TSA built, in 2009. Breeding success was marginal when we first started work here, but with improved facilities and husbandry, hatching has improved dramatically. In fact, 794 hatchlings have been produced in 2014!!

We arrived in Bagan in time for dinner and met the WCS team that included Drs. Brian Horne and Bonnie Raphael, long-time ,valued TSA colleagues.

September 27: We visited the assurance colony for both Burmese roofed turtles (Batagur trivittata) and star tortoises at the Lawkananda Wildlife Sanctuary in Bagan. The TSA built these facilities in 2011 and the results have been overwhelmingly positive. There are young star tortoises of all size classes, so many so that a new juvenile rearing unit had to be built this year.

430 hatched in 2014, and we hope that with this rate of rapid growth, that our release program will be able to keep pace. Star tortoises are prolific, with females reaching sexual maturity in as little as six years and laying multiple clutches of eggs.

Our B. trivittata facility is a beautiful earthen pond, with fresh water pumped in straight from the Ayeyarwady River, lots of grass for grazing, fruiting fig trees on the bank, a basking platform and two sand banks for nesting. 100 turtles are being raised here, hatched on the Chindwin River in 2007, and they are growing rapidly. The turtles are exhibiting the typical sexual dichromatism that this species is known for, with the males showing yellow heads and pale carapaces with bold markings. The Forest Department warden at this park is very diligent in assuring that the turtles and tortoise are cared for properly and we always discuss ways to improve their husbandry. We returned to the hotel where the WCS was wrapping up their work – two mobile labs were set up in hotel rooms and it was hard to believe that this much equipment would need to be packed up by the next day! They were ready for a break and to unwind - a sunset boat trip was just the ticket.

September 28: We shared lunch with the warden at Lawkananda Park, then spent the rest of the day working on a grant proposal with the team. 

September 29: We said goodbye to most of the WCS veterinary team, and left Bagan at noon for the 4-5 hour drive to Mandalay where we would overnight.

September 30: We flew from Mandalay to Khamti , the farthest point north I have ever been in Myanmar. There we met Kyaw Moe, Director of Field Operations here, then boarded a boat for the Linphar Base Camp - headquarters for the B. trivittata field recovery program. The team now consists of Steve and Kalyar Platt, Brian Horne, Bonnie Raphael and myself. Linphar Village lies far up the Upper Chindwin River and is accessible only by boat, and is downstream (south) from Khamti. It's the wet season and the river is up and swift, so traveling down river to see the program makes good sense. This is the first opportunity that some of us have had to travel up the Chindwin, and I am immediately impressed by the beauty and remoteness of the area. It was not long before we began to see exposed sand banks, which Steve says are much larger in the dry season when the river is lower, and I can only speculate as to how many female Batagur historically may have used these for nesting. After a three-hour boat ride, we arrive at Linphar, where we walk across a sand flat to reach the steps up to the village. Trying to do this barefoot at 3 PM turns out to be a huge mistake! Linphar is a charming little village that has apparently remained relatively unchanged since WWII, and is reminiscent of any small town where everyone knows everyone. The accommodations at Base Camp and much better than I expected, with generator power after dark, and good food thanks to the manager's wife. There is no phone or internet which is refreshing, but the times they are a-changing and a new cell tower has just been erected, visible from the village, just waiting to be connected. 

October 1: I got my first good look at the headstarting facilities for Burmese roof turtles. Currently 249 turtles are being reared here, hatched from 2011 – 2014, all growing rapidly and in need of more space. Fortunately, two large concrete pools have just been completed for grow out, with deeper water to encourage improved swimming abilities. We have long questioned the wisdom of releasing turtles into a large swift-moving stream that have been raised in a small pool, and how their swimming musculature might not be as well developed as needed for survival. These pools will expand our capacity to headstart terrapins from hatchling to release size, at one location that is close to their natal beach and natural habitat, and not move them to Mandalay for headstarting as we have in previous years. Considering the remoteness of this location, I am impressed with the scope of the operation all that the team has managed to achieve here, which is certainly a testament to their fortitude and CAN DO attitude.

Aside from the 249 B. trivittata here, we have another 100 at Lawkananda and 265 at Yadanabon Zoo in Mandalay – 614 total. This is an amazing achievement when one considers that this species was only rediscovered in 2001 and our captive population started with just three specimens rescued from a temple pond. This rapid population growth was fueled by an aggressive nest beach protection / egg incubation / headstarting program that was, without question, started in the nick of time to prevent this species' slide into extinction. The efficiency and scale of this program is even more impressive when one considers that the first turtles will be returning to the wild in 2015. 

October 2: We packed up and left Linphar early and headed downstream by boat to the town of Htamanthi and the Tamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary (TMS), one of the largest protected areas in Myanmar. Sitting on the eastern bank of the Chindwin River, the sanctuary is a biodiversity mecca, for large mammals especially, and is home to tigers, elephants, gaur (Asiatic bison), leopards, serow, gibbons and bear. Kyaw Moe, our WCS colleague who manages the B. trivittata project, is on staff here and splits time with the Linphar Base Camp. We had two goals for the day: First, travel up the Nanthalat Chaung, a tributary of the Chindwin, to see one of the proposed Batagur release sites; second, look at the site where a third assurance colony for B. trivittata will be developed.

The Nanthalat Chaung is smaller than the Chindwin and not as heavily utilized, in fact there was evidence of Batagur nesting on this tributary in the not-too-distant past. Aside from its remoteness, many of the typical threats that make life on the Chindwin difficult for Batagur – gold mining, electro- and dynamite fishing – are not visible here. Sand bars are available for nesting and overall the river has a very verdant feel to it - more pristine, less used. Prior to my arrival in Myanmar the WCS / TSA selected 60 B. trivittata for release from the stock at the zoo in Mandalay, primarily hatched from 2007 – 2009. Radio-transmitters were placed on 30 of them and the plan is to release 30 turtles at each of two sites - here and at Linphar - during the upcoming dry season in 2015.

We returned to Htamanthi, had lunch and rested up till the temperature began to drop around 5 PM. Then we walked to a site just outside town, where a spring-fed stream winds across a beautiful meadow. This is the water source for the town and is hence protected from disturbance. A high bank already exists on one side and the idea is to build levees on the other side as the pond is excavated, and tap into the stream to fill the pond, and keep it overflowing with fresh water. The plan is to move many of our sub-adult B. trivittata from the zoo at Mandalay, and create another assurance colony, this one much closer to the natural range of the species and just down the river from the project base camp and release sites.

We returned (hot and sweaty!) to a well-deserved bucket bath, had dinner, and spent the night in the new guest house at TMS.

October 3: We traveled by boat downstream, four hours to Homelin, and enjoyed the scenic and lazy pace of life on the river. Though not as heavily populated as areas downstream near Bagan and Mandalay, the Upper Chindwin is still heavily utilized and gold mining operations are surprisingly evident. The river winds through some incredibly picturesque scenery with the beautiful Naga Hills in the background. We arrived by 1 PM, had lunch, and checked into a hotel where we experienced our first AC in many days, but the pleasure is fleeting: the generators are soon shut down and won't be on again till dark. But there is a shower and life is good. We had dinner here and spent the night. 

October 4: Flew to Yangon in the afternoon and spent the night. Enjoyed real hot water and AC!!

October 5: Flew to Bangkok in the afternoon and overnighted here, before an early morning return flight to Tokyo and then the US.

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Record Nesting for Burmese Roof Turtle

The joint Turtle Survival Alliance (TSA) / Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) field team recently returned from the Upper Chindwin River in Myanmar where one of the world's most critically endangered turtles is making a remarkable recovery. Feared extinct until "rediscovered" in 2002, when three specimens were found in a pagoda pond, the Burmese roof turtle had not been seen by scientists since the 1930s. Surveys subsequently located a remnant population on the Upper Chindwin River – a major tributary of the Ayeyarwady - that has provided the foundation for this species' recovery. A combination of nest protection, headstarting hatchlings for future release, and captive propagation have pulled this species back from the brink, and over 700 turtles are now thriving in three assurance colonies.

Led by the husband-and-wife team of Steven and Kalyar Platt, the expedition traveled by boat to their forward operating base in Limpha Village. Owing to the overwhelming success of this project and the burgeoning number of turtles in captivity, there is an urgent need to both expand the network assurance colonies and identify habitats where headstarted turtles can soon be released. Expanding the existing facilities in Limpha Village proved straight-forward: ten 250-gallon fiberglass tanks were installed to accommodate the rapidly growing turtles and house the hatchlings expected later this season. Furthermore, a vacant lot was donated by the village council where grow-out ponds for larger turtles will soon be constructed. Finally, a site was identified near the headquarters of Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary where a third captive breeding colony can be established. Plans call for a 1-acre fenced breeding pond to be constructed on the site during the coming months. A core group of breeding animals will be selected from rapidly maturing turtles currently being headstarted.
Identifying potential release sites was more problematic owing to fishing pressure, widespread use of sandbanks for seasonal agriculture, and gold mining. Nonetheless the search was successful: suitable release sites were identified in the Chindwin near Limpha and Nam Thalet Chaung, a tributary of the Chindwin where roof turtles historically occurred. As the Platts stated in an email, "this is a beautiful stretch of river with sandbanks for nesting, adjacent deep pools, and abundant fruiting trees for food. Importantly gold has never been found in this river, which has escaped the despoliation that typifies parts of the Chindwin."

While at Limpha the team assisted in collecting roof turtle eggs, which are transferred to a secure beach at the basecamp for incubation. The 2013-14 nesting season yielded a bumper crop of eggs: 150 from eight clutches were collected from four sandbanks. This represents an increase of one clutch over previous years and it seems likely that a additional young female has entered the breeding pool. Although outlook for the roof turtle appears promising, complacency is out of place. With fewer than ten mature females surviving in the wild, the future remains of this species remains precarious. However, without conservation action, the roofed turtle would no doubt have joined ranks of the "disappeared" and faded into biological oblivion.

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Preparing for Tortoise Reintroduction in Myanmar

IMG_0750The Turtle Survival Alliance has been part of a highly successful collaboration with the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in Myanmar to conserve critically endangered and endemic turtles and tortoises since 2009. Our work began as an effort to build turtle facilities to breed and house rare and endangered turtles rescued from government confiscations.  After a marked decline in the 1990s and complete extirpation in the 2000s, the TSA (with WCS) began a highly successful breeding program for the Burmese Star Tortoise (Geochelone platynota). There are now more than 4,000 Star Tortoises at several facilities throughout Myanmar and we have begun an effort to reintroduce 150 of these animals back to their native habitat.

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Star Tortoise Pre-Release Pens Built in Myanmar

bamboo_fenceThe Turtle Survival Alliance (TSA) and the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) work together to conserve three of Myanmar’s critically endangered endemic turtles and tortoises. Since 2009, the TSA has been aggressively pursuing a conservation campaign to conduct field research, coordinate rescue operations for turtles confiscated from the wildlife trade, hold training workshops and oversee multiple construction projects. During that time, we have managed to assemble assurance colonies (groups of endangered animals that are carefully managed in captivity to prevent their extinction) for several species. The Burmese Star Tortoise (Geochelone platynota) is considered to be “functionally extinct” in nature (no wild breeding populations remain), but it has done exceptionally well in captivity. At this point, several thousand animals exist in our assurance colonies in Myanmar, and those colonies continue to grow.

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Turtle Confiscations in Myanmar

yellow_tortoises_at_TRC_Sept_2013The TSA’s new Turtle Rescue Center (TRC) in Myanmar is a busy place these days after the second recent confiscation of Yellow Tortoises (Indotestudo elongata).  A total of 136 tortoises have arrived at the TRC in two shipments in September, turned over by the Myanmar Forestry Department.  The tortoises are being treated by Dr. Tint Lwin from the nearby Yadanabon Zoo in Mandalay, and will be held here until appropriate release sites can be identified. 

photo_62Opened in December 2012 and handed over to the Forestry Department, the TRC is located at the Zeepin Forest Reserve near May Myo, and offers spacious enclosures where turtles and tortoises can be housed safely and humanely while returning to health.  Previously, confiscated turtles were held in crowded conditions and released prematurely before habitat assessments could be conducted.  With the TRC in place, the future survival and health of confiscated and released chelonians will be vastly improved. 

photo_61The TRC also has new facilities that support a large assurance colony of Burmese Mountain Tortoises (Manouria emys phayrei) and the cool climate in this hill region is considered perfect for this species. Earlier this year a confiscation included three Arakan Forest Turtles (Heosemys depressa)  and four Impressed Tortoises (Manouria impressa), both priority species for assurance colony management.  The depressa will soon join the breeding group established at the Arakan Turtle Center  in Gwa that we opened earlier this year.  

photo_64 The TRC is a joint initiative of the TSA / WCS Myanmar Turtle Conservation Program and was built with funding support from Pat Koval / WWF Canada, Taipei Forestry Bureau, the Fagus Foundation and the Detroit Zoological Institute.       





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River Terrapin Egg-Laying Season in Full Swing

DSCN1807From Bangladesh to Cambodia,  River Terrapins (Genus Batagur) are laying eggs - and lot of them - both in the wild and captivity. Below is a brief summary of River Terrapin nesting activity in programs managed by the TSA and their partners.

Northern River Terrapin or Sunderban Batagur (B. baska): In Bangladesh, at the captive breeding center at Bhawal National Park, the first nest (19 eggs) was laid March 21, followed by two more nests on March 23, consisting of 22 and 14 eggs respectively. Apparently one of the two females dug up another female's nest while laying her own so there was some breakage and egg loss. Project Coordinator Rupali Ghosh was on hand for the nest digging. This is a joint program of Turtle Survival Alliance, Vienna Zoo, Bangladesh Forest Department and our newest partner, IUCN Bangladesh. There are 14.5 adults in this breeding colony (14 males and five females).

DSCN1853In India, at the B. baska breeding center at Sajnekhali, in West Bengal, TSA India Director Shai Singh reports that two females are emerging every night and making trial digs in the newly created nesting enclosure. Last year 50 total hatchlings emerged from these two Centers and we are hoping for a much better hatch rate this year. More good news: the Forest Department procured an additional adult female (22 kg) from a village pond in the northern Sunderbans, bringing the total number at Sajnekhali to 6.5.32 (six males, five females and 32 unknown).

All total there are now 20 males, 10 females and 55 unsexed juveniles of this rare Batagur in captive centers in Indian and Bangladesh and the conservation outlook is looking much brighter that it was just a few years ago when this species was ranked #4 on the list of the Top 25 World's Most Endangered Turtles.

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TSA Opens New Turtle and Tortoise Facilities in Myanmar

Hand_OverIt’s official!!   Myanmar’s first turtle and tortoise rescue facility was dedicated on December 6, at the Zeepin Forest Reserve, Ban Bwe Tree Nursery, about 17 miles east of May Myo, in Shan State. TSA President Rick Hudson handed over the keys to the new Turtle Rescue Center (TRC) to U Myint Sein of the Forestry Department saying “It is our sincere hope that this facility will offer new hope to thousands of turtles and tortoises confiscated from the illegal wildlife trade.” The TRC is located along the Lashio Road which leads to China, and is a major trade route for illegally harvested wildlife coming out of Mandalay heading for the border.  Lashio was originally selected as the site for the TRC but plans changed due to logistical concerns and moved to a forestry station outside of May Myo, locally known as Pwin Oo Lwin.  Aside from being more accessible (just an hour drive from Mandalay), the climate here is moderate and more conducive to animal rescue.  The TRC was designed in May 2012 by a TSA team consisting of Cris Hagen (Director of Animal Management), Bill Holmstrom (Board Member), Shailendra Singh (Director TSA India), Kalyar Platt (Director TSA Myanmar) and Rick Hudson.

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2012: A Year to Remember

2012 was the busiest and best in the history of the Turtle Survival Alliance. Here are just a few of the accomplishments that we're so grateful for as the year draws to a close:IMG_9322

  • In Madagascar, the TSA’s grassroots campaign to expose the Radiated Tortoise poaching crisis is beginning to yield positive results throughout the country. Community agreements to strengthen protection for this iconic species have resulted in a dramatic increase in confiscations and arrests in 2012, a sign that the tide may finally be turning. In 2013, the TSA will embark on an ambitious program to build a series of rescue centers throughout the south for rehabilitation and treatment until the tortoises are prepared to return to the wild.   
  • In December, the TSA will dedicate Burma’s first Turtle Rescue Center. Years of planning and fund-raising have culminated in this facility that promises to save countless turtles and tortoises rescued from the illegal wildlife trade.  New assurance colony facilities were also built this year for Burmese Mountain Tortoises and Arakan Forest Turtles.
  • basking_hatchlingsThe June hatching of 50 Northern River Terrapins in captive facilities in both Bangladesh and India was a stunning achievement, and made global news.  This gives new hope for the survival of this critically endangered turtle that is believed to be very near extinction in the wild.
  • A recent Save Our Species grant will breathe new life into recovery programs for Asian river terrapins (Genus Batagur) in India, Myanmar, Cambodia and Bangladesh. Captive management is essential to safeguarding these species until efforts to protect and restore nesting habitat are successful, and we are actively building a multi-national model that integrates these strategies. 
  • The TSA produced two films this year to increase awareness of the extensive poaching problems that threaten chelonians in both Madagascar and Bangladesh, and the brutal slaughter that accompanies the illegal wildlife trade. 
  • DSC_6258The TSA launched a program in Colombia this year – our first in South America – that will focus on endemic species, most notably the critically endangered Magdalena River Turtle.  By expanding a successful community-based program of nest protection, hatching, headstarting and release, these grassroots efforts will have a greater impact on the species’ recovery in the wild.
  • In India, the TSA is poised to assume management of the Kukrail Gharial Conservation Center in Lucknow where we will build assurance colonies of most of northern India’s threatened chelonians. The Center will become the home base of operations for TSA India, and provide a facility where the increasing number of confiscated turtles can be rehabilitated.
  • Launching the Turtle Survival Center in South Carolina in 2013 is guaranteed to prove transformational for the TSA and will propel us into a new era.  Building assurance colonies for some of the world’s rarest species – many of which will depend on captive management for their survival – will ensure that we maintain our commitment to zero turtle extinctions.

Membership revenue and online sales account for just roughly 8% of our total revenue. The remainder of our income is provided primarily through grants and donations. For that reason, we are reaching out to those of you who support the TSA to ask for your consideration of a year-end gift to help propel us into an even bigger and better 2013.

This gift does not have the benefits associated with membership and is completely tax deductible to the extent allowed by law. It is a gift that comes from the heart by those who understand the needs of chelonians worldwide and appreciate the work being done year-round by the TSA globally. Click here to donate today.

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Star Tortoise Workshops Hosted in Myanmar

Group_photograph_of_participants_at_Burmese_star_tortoise_workshop_held_at_Lawkanandar_Wildlife_Sanctuary_from_17-21_September_2012The Burmese star tortoise (Geochelone platynota) is a Critically Endangered species endemic to the dry zone of central Myanmar.  Star tortoises have long been harvested for food by local people, but high demand, first from food and traditional medicine markets in southern China, and later by pet markets in China, Japan, and Thailand led to precipitous population declines during the late 1990s, and the species is now thought to be “ecologically” extinct in the wild. Recognizing that future conservation efforts hinged on developing successful captive breeding programs to supply tortoises for eventual reintroduction, assurance colonies of Burmese star tortoises were established at several facilities in Myanmar (Shwe Settaw, Minzontaung, and Lawkanandar Wildlife Sanctuaries, and Yadanabon Zoological Gardens in Mandalay).  To date, these programs have enjoyed considerable success and large numbers of hatchlings are being produced each year.  Consequently, the species is now at little risk of biological extinction. Considerable interest has been expressed in reintroducing tortoises into suitably protected sites, and a recent survey identified two wildlife sanctuaries (Shwe Settaw and Minzontaung wildlife sanctuaries) where such projects were deemed feasible.  

Daw_Lay_layKhaing_delivers_a_presentation_on_the_husbandry_of_captive_star_tortoises_based_on_her_many_years_of_extensive_experience_as_Dr._Kalyar_Platt_translates_into_EnglishAs a prelude to reintroduction, a national Burmese star tortoise workshop was conducted at Lawkanandar Wildlife Sanctuary (LWS) from 17 to 21 September 2012 with the following objectives:

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New Book Available on Myanmar's Turtles

myanmar_book_coverSitting astride the southern border of China, Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) has been on the frontlines of the battle to save Asia's imperiled chelonian fauna ever since the global conservation community first became aware of the Asian Turtle Crisis in the mid-1990s. Unfortunately, resources for conservation are scarce in this impoverished nation, and as a consequence poachers and illegal wildlife traffickers have run rampant, decimating turtle populations throughout the country.

Nonetheless, the Myanmar Forest Department takes threats to its biodiversity seriously, and is making a determined effort to stem the hemorrhage of turtles from within its borders. Enforcement efforts, however are hampered by a lack of turtle identification skills among customs officers, police, and Forest Department personnel manning border checkpoints. To help address this deficiency, the Forest Department requested that the Turtle Survival Alliance/Wildlife Conservation Society's Myanmar Program prepare a simple, easy-to-use guidebook on the tortoises and freshwater turtles of Myanmar.

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